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Thursday, 24 May 2018

Chart 511 - Indian Currencies

Chart contains Indian Currency Notes of different denominations
Indian Currencies Chart

Spectrum Chart - 511 : Indian Currencies

2000 - ₹2000 banknote is a 66 mm × 166 mm magenta coloured note, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi, the Ashoka Pillar Emblem and the signature of Reserve Bank of India Governor. It has Braille print on it, to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of the Mangalyaan, representing India's first interplanetary space mission and the logo and tag line for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. ₹2000 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

500 - ₹500 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series is 66mm x 150mm stone grey coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi as well as the Ashoka Pillar Emblem, with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of the Indian heritage site of Red Fort and the logo and a tag line of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. ₹500 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

100 - ₹100 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 73 × 157 mm blue-green coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a view from Goecha La. ₹100 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

50 - ₹50 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 73 × 147 mm, colored Pink-violet, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of the Reserve Bank of India. It has a Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the notes. The reverse side features an image of Sansad Bhawan (Parliament House), the meeting place of the Parliament of India. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

20 - ₹20 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 63 × 147 mm Red-orange coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of Mount Harriet and Port Blair light house. ₹20 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

10 - ₹10 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 63 × 137 mm Orange-violet coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of a Rhinoceros, an elephant and a tiger, all together as Fauna of India. ₹10 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

5 - ₹5 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 63 × 117 mm green coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of a tractor. ₹5 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

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Friday, 23 February 2018

Chart 742 - Nobel Prize Winners of India

Chart contains images of Nobel Prize winners from India & from Indian origins
Nobel Prize Winners of India Chart

Spectrum Chart - 742 : Nobel Prize Winners of India

1. Rabindranath Tagore - Rabindranath Tagore (7th May 1861 – 7 August 1941) was a poet of India. He was also a philosopher and an artist. He wrote many stories, novels, poems and dramas. He is also very well known for composing music. His writings greatly influenced Bengali culture during the late 19th century and early 20th century. In 1913, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the first Asian ever to win this prize. Rabindranath Tagore was popularly known as "Gurudev." His major works included Gitanjali (Song Offerings), a world-famous poetry book. He made it possible to make art using different forms and styles.

2. C. V. Raman - Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist. He studied light scattering. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for his work in this subject. He discovered that, when light passes through a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect. In 1954, India honoured him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.

3. Mother Teresa - Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was a Roman Catholic nun who started the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her work with people. For over forty years, she took care of needs of those without money, those who were sick, those without parents, and those dying in Calcutta (Kolkata), guided in part by the ideals of Saint Francis of Assisi.

4. Amartya Sen - Amartya Kumar Sen (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher of Bengali origin. Since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom and the United States. He worked in welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of famines and indexes of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1998 and Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics. He was also awarded the inaugural Charleston-EFG John Maynard Keynes Prize in recognition of his work on welfare economics in February 2015 during a reception at the Royal Academy in the UK. In 2017, Sen was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science for most valuable contribution to Political Science.

5. Kailash Satyarathi - Kailash Satyarthi (born 11 January 1954) is an Indian children's rights activist. He is a Nobel Peace Prize recipient and the founder of Bachpan Bachao Andolan, the Kailash Satyarthi Children’s Foundation, Global March Against Child Labour and GoodWeave International. Till date, Kailash Satyarthi and his team at the Bachpan Bachao Andolan have liberated more than 86,000 children in India from child labour, slavery and trafficking. In 1998, Satyarthi led the Global March against Child Labour, 80,000 km long physical march across 103 countries to put forth a global demand against child labour. The movement became one of the largest social movements ever on behalf of exploited children.

6. Har Gobind Khorana - Har Gobind Khorana (9 January 1922 – 9 November 2011) was an Indian American biochemist. While on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, he shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for research that showed the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids, which carry the genetic code of the cell and control the cell’s synthesis of proteins. Khorana and Nirenberg were also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in the same year.

7. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS PV (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995), was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States. He was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics with William A. Fowler for "theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". His mathematical treatment of stellar evolution yielded many of the best current theoretical models of the later evolutionary stages of massive stars and black holes. The Chandrasekhar limit is named after him. Chandrasekhar worked on a wide variety of physical problems in his lifetime, contributing to the contemporary understanding of stellar structure, white dwarfs, stellar dynamics, stochastic process, radiative transfer, the quantum theory of the hydrogen anion, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, turbulence, equilibrium and the stability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, general relativity, mathematical theory of black holes and theory of colliding gravitational waves.

8. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan - Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (born 1952) is an Indian-born American-British biochemist and biophysicist. He received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome. He is the current President of the Royal Society, having held the position since November 2015. Since 1999, he has worked as a group leader at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology(LMB) on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, UK, where he is also the Deputy Director.

9. Ronald Ross - Sir Ronald Ross KCB KCMG FRS FRCS (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate and the first born outside Europe. He worked in the Indian Medical Service for 25 years. It was during his service that he made the groundbreaking medical discovery.

10. Rudyard Kipling - Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 - 18 January 1936) was an English author and poet. He was born in Bombay, India. He wrote children's fiction, like Kim, The Jungle Book and Puck of Pooks Hill. He also wrote the well-known poems, If —and Gunga Din, and many short stories set in India. He was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature.

11. 14th Dalai Lama - 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso, born on 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism. He is the political and spiritual leader of Tibet. In 1989 he was awarded the Noble Peace Prize for his work encouraging understanding between different religions and encouraging people and countries to care for one another. During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama fled to India, where he currently lives as a refugee. He has traveled the world and has spoken about the welfare of Tibetans, environment, economics, women's rights, non-violence, interfaith dialogue, physics, astronomy, Buddhism and science, cognitive neuroscience, reproductive health, and sexuality, along with various topics of Mahayana and VajrayanaBuddhist teachings.

12. V. S. Naipaul - Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, (born 17 August 1932), is a British writer of Indian descent and Nobel Laureate who was born in Trinidad. He is known for his comic early novels set in Trinidad and Tobago, his bleaker later novels of the wider world, and his autobiographical chronicles of life and travels. He has published more than thirty books, both of fiction and nonfiction, over some fifty years. V. S. Naipaul was the first person of Indian origin to win a Booker Prize (1971).

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Tuesday, 13 February 2018

Chart 810 - Birds of India

Birds of India Chart
Birds of India Chart

Spectrum Chart - 810 : Birds of India

1. Rain Quail - Rain quail or black-breasted quail is a species of quail found in the Indian subcontinent. These quails are small birds, measuring 16 to 18 cm in length and weighing 65 to 85 grams. The male birds have a distinctive black patch on the breast. The male bird also has a distinctive black and white head pattern. They inhabit open grasslands. These rain quails feed on insects, grass, seeds, seeds and other plant matter. They breed during March to October. The quail nest usually contains six to eight eggs and the female incubate the eggs.

2. Indian Pitta - Indian pitta is a passerine bird native to the Indian subcontinent. The Indian pitta is a small stubby-tailed bird that is mostly seen on the floor of forests or under dense undergrowth, foraging on insects in leaf litter. It has long, strong legs, a very short tail and stout bill, with a buff coloured crown stripe, black coronal stripes, a thick black eye stripe and white throat and neck. The upperparts are green, with a blue tail, the underparts buff, with bright red on the lower belly and vent. Indian pittas breed mainly in the Himalayan foothills. They also breed in the hills of central India and in the Western Ghats south to Karnataka. They migrate to all parts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka in winter.

3. Asian Koel - Asian koel is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes. It is found in the Indian Subcontinent. The Asian koel is a large, long-tailed, cuckoo measuring 39–46 cm and weighing 190–327 g. The male of the nominate race is glossy bluish-black, with a pale greenish grey bill, the iris is crimson and it has grey legs and feet. The female of the nominate race is brownish on the crown and has rufous streaks on the head. The back, rump and wing coverts are dark brown with white and buff spots. The Asian koel is a bird of light woodland and cultivation. It is a mainly resident breeder in tropical southern Asia from India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to southern China. The Asian koel is a brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nests of crows and other hosts, who raise its young.

4. Indian Roller - Indian roller, is a member of the roller family of birds. They are found widely across tropical Asia from Iraq eastward across the Indian Subcontinent to Indochina and are best known for the aerobatic displays of the male during the breeding season. Indian roller is a stocky bird about 26–27 cm long. The breast is brownish, crown and vent are blue. The primaries are deep purplish blue with a band of pale blue. The tail is sky blue with a terminal band of Prussian blue and the central feathers are dull green. The neck and throat are purplish lilac with white shaft streaks. Its main habitat includes cultivated areas, thin forest and grassland. The Indian roller is very common in the populated plains of India and associated with Hindu legends. It is said to be sacred to Lord Vishnu. A local Hindi name is neelkanth, meaning "blue throat".

5. Black Kite - Black kite is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. The species is found in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The temperate populations of this kite tend to be migratory while the tropical ones are resident. Black kites are most often seen gliding and soaring on thermals as they search for food. The flight is buoyant and the bird glides with ease, changing directions easily. They will swoop down with their legs lowered to snatch small live prey, fish, household refuse and carrion.

6. White Rumped Shama - White-rumped shama is a small passerine bird of the family Muscicapidae. Native to densely vegetated habitats in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, its popularity as a cage-bird and songster has led to it being introduced elsewhere. They typically weigh between 28 and 34 g and are around 23–28 cm in length. Males are glossy black with a chestnut belly and white feathers on the rump and outer tail. Females are more greyish-brown and are typically shorter than males. Both sexes have a black bill and pink feet.

7. Blue Rock Thrush - Blue rock thrush is a species of chat. This thrush-like Old World flycatcher was formerly placed in the family Turdidae. Blue rock thrush is a starling-sized bird, 21–23 cm in length with a long slim bill. The male blue rock thrush sings a clear, melodious call that is similar to, but louder than the call of the rock thrush. Blue rock thrush breeds in open mountainous areas. It nests in rock cavities and walls, and usually lays 3-5 eggs. An omnivore, the blue rock thrush eats a wide variety of insects and small reptiles in addition to berries and seeds.

8. Grey Francolin - Grey francolin is a species of francolin found in the plains and drier parts of South Asia. The francolin is barred throughout and the face is pale with a thin black border to the pale throat. The only similar species is the painted francolin, which has a rufous vent. The male can have up to two spurs on the legs while females usually lack them. Grey francolin is normally found foraging on bare or low grass covered ground in scrub and open country, and is rarely found above an altitude of 500 m above sea level in India.

9. Common Hoopoe - Hoopoe is a bird of the family Upupidae. This colorful bird can be found across the Europe, Asia, Africa and Madagascar. Hoopoe inhabits wide variety of habitats: grasslands, savannas, forests and wooded steppes. Hoopoe is a medium-sized bird that can reach length between 9.8 to 12.6 inches. It has a wingspan of 17.3 to 19 inches. Hoopoe is easily recognized because of its colourful feathers. Bird is cinnamon to chestnut in colour, with white and black stripes on the wings and tail. It has prominent, upright crest on its head. Hoopoe eats different type of insects, small reptiles, snails, frogs, seeds, berries and other types of plant materials. Hoopoe is a territorial animal. Average lifespan of hoopoe in the wild is 10 years.

10. Greater Coucal - Greater coucal or crow pheasant, is a large non-parasitic member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes. They are large, crow-like with a long tail and coppery brown wings and found in wide range of habitats from jungle to cultivation and urban gardens. They are weak fliers, and are often seen clambering about in vegetation or walking on the ground as they forage for insects, eggs and nestlings of other birds. This is a large species of cuckoo at 48 cm. The head is black, upper mantle and underside are black glossed with purple. The back and wings are chestnut brown. There are no pale shaft streaks on the coverts. The eyes are ruby red.

11. Kestrel – Kestrel are members of the falcon genus, Falco. Kestrels are most easily distinguished by their typical hunting behaviour which is to hover at a height of around 10–20 metres (35–65 ft) over open country and swoop down on prey, usually small mammals, lizards or large insects. Kestrels can hover in still air, even indoors in barns. Because they face towards any slight wind when hovering, the common kestrel is called a "windhover" in some areas.

12. Sunbird – Sunbirds are part of Nectariniidae family of passerine birds. They are small, slender passerines from the Old World, usually with downward-curved bills. Many are brightly coloured, often with iridescent feathers, particularly in the males. Many species also have especially long tail feathers. Their range extends through most of Africa to the Middle East, South Asia, South-east Asia and southern China, to Indonesia, New Guinea and northern Australia. Species diversity is highest in equatorial regions. Most sunbirds feed largely on nectar, but will also eat insects and spiders, especially when feeding their young. Sunbird are active diurnal birds that generally occur in pairs or occasionally in small family groups.

13. Woodpecker - There are over 200 species of woodpeckers that can be found all around the globe except in Australia, New Zealand and Madagascar. Woodpeckers live in forests, backyards and various other types of habitat where trees are available. Several species of woodpeckers are endangered or already extinct due to habitat loss and increased urbanization. Woodpeckers are usually red, white, black and yellow in color. Their plumage can also be combination of orange, green, brown and golden color. Woodpeckers have very long tongue which is designed for capturing of prey that is hidden inside the trees. Woodpeckers are omnivores. They eat insects, insect larvae and eggs, tree sap, seed, nuts etc. Woodpecker is able to peck 20 times per second. It produces between 10,000 and 12,000 pecks per day. Woodpeckers can survive between 5 and 11 years in the wild.

14. Shikra – Shikra is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae found widely distributed in Asia and Africa where it is also called the little banded goshawk. Shikra is a small raptor (26–30 cm long) and like most other Accipiter hawks, this species has short rounded wings and a narrow and somewhat long tail. Shikra is found in a range of habitats including forests, farmland and urban areas. They are usually seen singly or in pairs. The flight is typical with flaps and glides.

15. Indian Paradise Flycatcher - Indian paradise flycatcher is a medium-sized passerine bird native to Asia that is widely distributed. Adult Indian paradise flycatchers are 19–22 cm long. Their heads are glossy black with a black crown and crest, their black bill round and sturdy, their eyes black. As adults they develop up to 24 cm long tail feathers with two central tail feathers growing up to 30cm long drooping streamers.

16. Eurasian Sparrowhawk - Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. The sparrowhawk is a small bird of prey with short, broad wings and a long tail. These adaptations help it to fly between trees. Females can be up to 25% larger than males and can be twice as heavy. Eurasian sparrowhawk is a major predator of smaller woodland birds, though only 10% of its hunting attacks are successful. It hunts by surprise attack, using hedges, tree-belts, copses, orchards and other cover near woodland areas, its choice of habitat is dictated by these requirements. Most sparrowhawks live for about four years.

17. Brahminy Myna - Brahminy myna or brahminy starling is a member of the starling family of birds. It is usually seen in pairs or small flocks in open habitats on the plains of the Indian subcontinent. This myna is pale buff creamy with a black cap and a loose crest. The bill is yellow with a bluish base. The iris is pale and there is a bluish patch of skin around the eye. The adult male has a more prominent crest than the female and also has longer neck hackles. It is a resident breeder in Nepal and India, a winter visitor to Sri Lanka and a summer visitor in parts of the western Himalayas and northeastern Himalayas. Like most starlings, the brahminy starling is omnivorous, eating fruit and insects.

18. Great Indian Bustard - Great Indian Bustard or Indian bustard is a bustard found in India. A large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs, giving it an ostrich like appearance, this bird is among the heaviest of the flying birds. Once common on the dry plains of the Indian subcontinent, as few as 250 individuals were estimated in 2011 to survive and the species is critically endangered by hunting and loss of its habitat. These birds are often found associated in the same habitat as blackbuck. The habitat where it is most often found is arid and semi-arid grasslands, open country with thorn scrub, tall grass interspersed with cultivation. It avoids irrigated areas.

19. Rufous Treepie - Rufous treepie is a treepie, native to the Indian Subcontinent and adjoining parts of Southeast Asia. It is a member of the crow family, Corvidae. It is long tailed and has loud musical calls making it very conspicuous. It is found commonly in open scrub, agricultural areas, forests as well as urban gardens. Like other corvids it is very adaptable, omnivorous and opportunistic in feeding. The range of this species is quite large, covering all of mainland India up to the Himalayas and south easterly in a broad band into Bangladesh, Burma(Myanmar), Laos and Thailand in open forest consisting of scrub, plantations and gardens.

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Chart 776 - New Indian Currencies

New Indian Currencies Chart
New Indian Currencies Chart

Spectrum Chart - 776 : New Indian Currencies

1. ₹ 2000 - ₹2000 banknote is a 66 mm × 166 mm magenta coloured note, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi, the Ashoka Pillar Emblem and the signature of Reserve Bank of India Governor. It has Braille print on it, to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of the Mangalyaan, representing India's first interplanetary space mission and the logo and tag line for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. ₹2000 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

2. ₹ 500 - ₹500 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series is 66mm x 150mm stone grey coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi as well as the Ashoka Pillar Emblem, with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of the Indian heritage site of Red Fort and the logo and a tag line of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. ₹500 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

3. ₹ 200₹200 banknote is 66mm x 146mm bright yellow coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi as well as the Ashoka Pillar Emblem, with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of the Indian heritage site of Sanchi Stupa and the logo and a tag line of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. ₹200 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

4. ₹ 100 - ₹100 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 73 × 157 mm blue-green coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a view from Goecha La. ₹100 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

5. ₹ 5050 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series is 66mm x 135mm fluorescent blue coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi as well as the Ashoka Pillar Emblem, with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of the Hampi with Chariot and the logo and a tag line of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. ₹50 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

6. ₹ 20 - ₹20 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 63 × 147 mm Red-orange coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of Mount Harriet and Port Blair light house. ₹20 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

7. ₹ 10 - ₹10 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 63 × 137 mm Orange-violet coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of a Rhinoceros, an elephant and a tiger, all together as Fauna of India. ₹10 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

8. ₹ 5₹5 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 63 × 117 mm green coloured, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features a motif of a tractor. ₹5 banknote has its amount written in 17 languages. On the obverse, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse is a language panel which displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

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Chart 773 - Influential Leaders Of India

Influential Leaders Of India Chart
Influential Leaders Of India Chart

Spectrum Chart - 773 : Influential Leaders Of India

  1. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel - Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was an Indian barrister and statesman, a leader of the Indian National Congress and a founding father of the Republic of India who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was often addressed as Sardar, which means Chief in Hindi, Urdu and Persian. His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet "Iron Man of India". He is also affectionately remembered as the "Patron saint of India's civil servants" for having established the modern all-India services system. He is also called the Unifier of India. A commemoration of Patel, held annually on his birthday, 31 October, known as the Rashtriya Ekta Diwas (National Unity Day).
  2. Narendra Modi - Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician who is the 14th and current Prime Minister of India, in office since May 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014 and is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi, a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) and member of the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child and later ran his own stall. He was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Lok Sabha, the first time a single party had achieved this since 1984. Since taking office, Modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, increased spending on infrastructure. The economic policies of Modi's government focused on privatisation and liberalisation of the economy, based on a neoliberal framework.
  3. Mahatma Gandhi - Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was a leader of nationalism in British-ruled India. He is more commonly called Mahatma Gandhi; Mahatma is an honorific meaning "great-soul" or "venerable" in Sanskrit. He was first called this in 1914 in South Africa. He is also called Bapu in India. Gandhi was one of the most important people involved in the movement for the independence of India. He was a non-violent activist, who led the independence movement through a non-violent protest. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday and worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence.
  4. Indira Gandhi - Indira Gandhi (19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and the only female Prime Minister of the country. She served as Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. As Prime Minister, Indira was known for centralisation of power and political ruthlessness. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh. Citing fissiparous tendencies and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and press was censored. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. In 1980, she returned to power after free and fair elections. She was responsible for India joining the club of countries with nuclear weapons. Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics.
  5. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar - Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a jurist, social reformer and politician. He is also known as the Father of Indian Constitution. A well-known politician and an eminent jurist, his efforts to eradicate social evils like untouchablity and caste restrictions were remarkable. Throughout his life, he fought for the rights of the dalits and other socially backward classes. Ambedkar was appointed as India's first Law Minister in the Cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honor, in 1990. Dr. Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of the constitution drafting committee on August 29, 1947. Ambedkar emphasized on the construction of a virtual bridge between all classes of the society.
  6. Jawaharlal Nehru - Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was a member the Congress Party that led the freedom movement against the British rule. He was the chief framer of domestic and international policies during his term as PM between 1947 and 1964. It was under Nehru's supervision that India launched its first Five-Year Plan in 1951. Nehru was one of the architects to steer the nascent nation towards the brilliance envisioned by countless revolutionaries of the Indian Freedom struggle. Nehru developed India as a secular nation true to its thousand years old cultural heritage. He had immense love for children and his birthday, November 14, is celebrated as Children’s day in India.

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Chart 763 - ISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation Chart
ISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation Chart

Spectrum Chart - 763 : ISRO - Indian Space Research Organisation

1. Chandrayaan 1 – Chandrayaan-1 was India's first lunar probe. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in October 2008 and operated until August 2009. The mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor. India launched the spacecraft using a PSLV-XL rocket, serial number C11, on 22 October 2008 at 00:52 UTC from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon. The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria.

2. PSLV-C37 – PSLV-C37, also known as Cartosat-2 series satellite) was the 39th mission of the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) program and its 16th mission in the XL configuration. PSLV-C37 successfully carried and deployed a record 104 satellites in sun-synchronous orbits. Launched on 15 February 2017 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota, With this launch, ISRO created a new world record for the largest number of satellites ever launched on a single rocket, surpassing the previous record of Russia, which in 2014 launched 37 satellites using Dnepr rocket. The total cost of the mission was ₹1007.64 Crore (US$15 million).

3. Mangalyaan 1 - Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. It was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has also become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA and the European Space Agency. It is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt. The total cost of the mission was approximately ₹450 Crore (US$73 million), making it the least-expensive Mars mission to date. The primary objective of the mission is to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. The secondary objective is to explore Mars' surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere using indigenous scientific instruments. The mission would also provide multiple opportunities to observe the Martian moon Phobos and also offer an opportunity to identify and re-estimate the orbits of asteroids seen during the Martian Transfer Trajectory.

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Chart 758 - Caves of Maharashtra 1

Caves of Maharashtra Chart
Caves of Maharashtra 1 Chart

Spectrum Chart - 758 : Caves of Maharashtra 1

1. Aurangabad Caves - Aurangabad caves are twelve rock-cut Buddhist shrines located on a hill running roughly east to west, close to the city of Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Aurangabad Caves were dug out of comparatively soft basalt rock during the 6th and 7th century. The carvings at the Aurangabad Caves are notable for including Hinayana style stupa, Mahayana art work and Vajrayanagoddesses. These caves are among those in India that show 1st millennium CE Buddhist artwork with goddesses such as Durga and gods such as Ganesha, although Buddhist caves in other parts of India with these arts are older. Numerous Buddhist deities of the Tantra tradition are also carved in these caves.

2. Ajanta Caves - Ajanta Caves are about 29 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. The caves include paintings and rock cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotion through gesture, pose and form. According to UNESCO, these are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art that influenced Indian art that followed. The site is a protected monument in the care of the Archaeological Survey of India and since 1983, the Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

3. Bahrot Caves - Bahrot Caves, locally known as Bhardana, near Dahanu, Maharashtra are the only Parsi/Zoroastrian Cave temple in India. They were unused Buddhist caves excavated by Buddhist monks. Zoroastrians hid for 13 years in these mountains after an invasion of their settlement at Sanjan by Alaf Khan, a general of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1393 CE. The ‘Iranshah Flame’ was also moved to Bahrot during this period (1393 – 1405 AD). Even today, the Holy Fire is burning and it is given the most eminent grade of devoted fire in the world. Bahrot Caves have been declared a heritage site and is a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India.

4. Bedse Caves - Bedse Caves, also known as Bedsa Caves, are situated in Maval taluka, Pune District, Maharashtra. They are some 9 km from the Bhaja Caves, another group of Buddhist rock-cut monuments. The history of the caves can be traced back to the Satavahana period in the 1st century BCE. There are two main caves. The best known cave is the chaitya with a comparatively large stupa, the other cave is the monastery or vihara. They are marked by a profusion of decorative gavaksha or chaitya arch motifs.

5. Bhaja Caves - Bhaja Caves is a group of 22 rock-cut caves dating back to the 2nd century BC located in Pune district, near Lonavala. The caves are 400 feet above the village of Bhaja on an important ancient trade route running from the Arabian Sea eastward into the Deccan Plateau. It belongs to the Hinayana Buddhism sect in Maharashtra. The caves have a number of stupas, one of their significant features. The most prominent excavation is its chaitya, a good example of the early development of this form from wooden architecture, with a vaulted horseshoe ceiling. Its vihara has a pillared verandah in front and is adorned with unique reliefs. These caves are notable for their indications of the awareness of wooden architecture.

6. Elephanta Caves - Elephanta Caves are a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a collection of cave temples predominantly dedicated to Hindu god Shiva. The Elephanta Caves contain rock cut stone sculptures, that show syncretism of Hindu and Buddhist ideas and iconography. The caves are hewn from solid basalt rock. The main temple's orientation as well as the relative location of other temples are placed in a mandala pattern. The carvings narrate Hindu mythologies, with the large monolithic 20 feet Trimurti Sadashiva, Nataraja and Yogishvara being the most celebrated.

7. Ellora Caves – Ellora caves in Maharashtra, India, is one of the largest rock-cut monastery-temple cave complexes in the world, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, featuring Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments and artwork, dating from the 600-1000 CE period. There are over 100 caves at the site, all excavated from the basalt cliffs in the Charanandri Hills, 34 of which are open to public. These consist of 12 Buddhist (caves 1–12), 17 Hindu (caves 13–29) and 5 Jain (caves 30–34) caves, with each group representing deities and mythologies that were prevalent in the 1st millennium CE, as well as monasteries of each respective religion.

8. Gandharpale Caves - Gandharpale Caves is group of 30 Buddhist caves. They are situated on a hill near Mahad- Konkan across the Mumbai-Goa highway. There is Hinayana Buddhist caves that were excavated sometime in 150-300 AD. They are mostly Buddhist viharas located on a hill top. The caves have a few small stupas located in prayer halls called chaityagrihas..There also exist a few carvings of lord Buddha the Bodhisatvas along with attendants on the vihara walls and pillars, but they seem to have abraded with time.

9. Kanheri Caves - Kanheri Caves are a group of caves and rock-cut monuments cut into a massive basalt outcrop in the forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, on the island of Salsette in the western outskirts of Mumbai. They contain Buddhist sculptures and relief carvings, paintings and inscriptions, dating from the 1st century BCE to the 10th century CE. Kanheri comes from the Sanskrit Krishnagiri, which means black mountain.

10. Dharashiv Caves - Dharashiv caves are the nexus of 7 caves located 8 km away from Osmanabad city in Balaghat mountains in Maharashtra. Dharashiv caves are believed to be built around 5th-7th century. First cave has been discovered in 10th century during the age of Rashtrakutas, while there are have been debates over caves whether they are Buddhist or Jain creations. It is believed that these caves were originally Buddhist, but were later converted into monuments of the Jain religion.

11. Karla Caves - Karla Caves are a complex of ancient Buddhist Indian rock-cut caves at Karli near Lonavala, Maharashtra. The shrines were developed over the period – from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. The oldest of the cave shrines is believed to date back to 160 BC, having arisen near a major ancient trade route, running eastward from the Arabian Sea into the Deccan. There are altogether 16 caves in the group, with 3 of them being Mahayana caves. Most of the caves are lenas, with the major exception being the Great Chaitya, Cave No. 8. Today, the cave complex is a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India.

12. Kondana Caves - Kondana Caves are located in small village, Kondana, 33 km north of Lonavala and 16 km northwest of Karla Caves. This cave group has 16 Buddhist caves. The caves were excavated in first century B.C. The construction on wooden pattern is notabale. One can reach the cave by descending from Rajmachi village.

13. Lenyadri Caves – Lenyadri sometimes called Ganesa Lena, represents a series of about 30 rock-cut Buddhist caves, located about 5km north of Junnar in Pune district. Cave 7, originally a Buddhist vihara, has been adapted as a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Ganesha. It is one of the Ashtavinayak shrines, a set of the eight prominent Ganesha shrines in Western Maharashtra. Twenty-six of the caves are individually numbered. Caves 6 and 14 are chaitya-grihas (chapels), while the rest are viharas (dwellings for monks). The caves date from between the 1st and 3rd century AD; the Ganesha shrine situated in Cave 7 is dated to the 1st century AD, though the date of conversion to a Hindu shrine is unknown. All of the caves arise from HinayanaBuddhism.

14. Pataleshwar Caves – Pataleshwar Cave is a rock-cut cave temple, carved out in the 8th century in the Rashtrakuta period. It is located in what is now Pune, in the state of Maharashtra. It has been declared as a protected monument by the government. The temple, made of basalt rock, is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. The sanctum - a cube-shaped room about 3–4 metres on each side - houses a linga - the symbol of Shiva. The huge complex of the cave has been converted into a garden and there are a few architectural members stored in it.

15. Pandavleni Caves - Pandavleni caves are a group of 24 caves carved between the 1st century BCE and the 3nd century CE, though additional sculptures were added up to about the 6th century, reflecting changes in Buddhist devotional practices. They are a significant group of early examples of Indian rock-cut architecture initially representing the so-called Hinayana tradition. Most of the caves are viharas except for Cave 18 which is a chaitya of the 1st century BCE. The style of some of the elaborate pillars or columns, for example in caves 3 and 10, is an important example of the development of the form. The location of the caves is a holy Buddhist site and is located about 8 km south of the center of Nashik, Maharashtra.

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Chart 748 - Water Birds of India

Water Birds of India Chart
Water Birds of India Chart

Spectrum Chart - 748 : Water Birds of India

1. Red Wattled Lapwing – Red wattled lapwing is a lapwing or large plover, a wader in the family Charadriidae. It has characteristic loud alarm calls. Usually seen in pairs or small groups not far from water but may form large flocks in the non-breeding season. Red-wattled lapwings are large waders, about 35 cm long. The wings and back are light brown with a purple sheen, but head and chest and front part of neck are black. Prominently white patch runs between these two colours, from belly and tail, flanking the neck to the sides of crown. Short tail is tipped black. A red fleshy wattle in front of each eye, black-tipped red bill, and the long legs are yellow.

2. Darter – Darters are mainly tropical waterbirds in the family Anhingidae having a single genus Anhinga. Darters are large birds, they measure about 80 to 100 cm (2.6 to 3.3 ft) in length, with a wingspan around 120 cm (3.9 ft) and weigh some 1,050 to 1,350 grams. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, a short erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage, on the neck and underparts and are a bit larger overall. Both have grey stippling on long scapulars and upper wing coverts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Darters are mostly tropical in distribution, ranging into subtropical and barely into warm temperate regions. They typically inhabit fresh water lakes, rivers, marshes, swamps etc. Darters feed mainly on mid-sized fish.

3. Flamingo – Flamingo are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes. Flamingos are pink or red. This is because of small bacteria that live in water which the flamingos eat. They also eat small crayfish and algae. Baby flamingos are gray. Flamingos are very tall birds and they have long legs. They often stand on only one leg. Scientists do not know why flamingos do this. Flamingos have a curved bill that is shaped like a banana. This is because they feed in the mud on the bottom of lakes. Flamingos can weigh up to 4 kg and be up to 145cm tall. They live up to around 47 years.

4. Swan – Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus. Swans are among the largest flying birds. They can range in extreme cases from 125 to 170 cm (49 to 67 in), with a 200 to 240 cm (79 to 94 in) wingspan. Males are larger than females and have a larger knob on their bill. Swans feed in the water and on land. They are almost entirely herbivorous, although they may eat small amounts of aquatic animals. In the water, food is obtained by up-ending or dabbling, and their diet is composed of the roots, tubers, stems and leaves of aquatic and submerged plants. Swans are known to aggressively protect their nests.

5. Oystercatcher – Oystercatchers are a group of waders forming the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus. They are found on coasts worldwide apart from the polar regions and some tropical regions of Africa and South East Asia. The different species of oystercatcher show little variation in shape or appearance. They range from 39–50 cm (15–20 in) in length and 72–91 cm (28–36 in) in wingspan. They usually eat shellfishes that are found on beaches and mud. Oystercatcher uses its sharp bill to open the shells of oysters and mussels. Oystercatcher has the heaviest bill (beak) of any living wader. With bills like that, oystercatchers are dangerous opponents for other birds. They can fight off predators, and often raid other birds to steal their catches. They get as much as 60% of their food by theft. Oystercatchers may live to 35 years.

6. Eurasian Curlew - Eurasian curlew is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across temperate Europe and Asia. It is mainly greyish brown, with a white back, greyish-blue legs and a very long curved bill. Males and females look identical, but the bill is longest in the adult female. Curlew exists as a migratory species over most of its range, wintering in Africa, southern Europe and south Asia.

7. Eurasian Wigeon - Eurasian wigeon is one of three species of wigeon in the dabbling duck genus Mareca. Eurasian wigeon is 42–52 cm (17–20 in) long with a 71–80 cm (28–31 in) wingspan and a weight of 500–1,073 g. Eurasian wigeon is a bird of open wetlands, such as wet grassland or marshes with some taller vegetation, and usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing, which it does very readily. It nests on the ground, near water and under cover. It is highly gregarious outside of the breeding season and will form large flocks. It breeds in the northernmost areas of Europe and Asia. It is strongly migratory and winters further south than its breeding range. It migrates to southern Asia and Africa.

8. Glossy Ibis - Glossy ibis is a wading bird in the ibis family Threskiornithidae. This is the most widespread ibis species, breeding in scattered sites in warm regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and the Atlantic and Caribbean regions of the Americas. Glossy Ibis has a brownish bill, dark facial skin bordered above and below in blue-gray to cobalt blue and red-brown legs. Unlike herons, ibises fly with necks outstretched, their flight being graceful and often in V formation. It also has shiny feathers. They have a preference for marshes at the margins of lakes and rivers but can also be found at lagoons, flood-plains, wet meadows, swamps, reservoirs, sewage ponds, paddies and irrigated farmland. The diet of the glossy ibis includes adult and larval insects such as aquatic beetles, dragonflies, damselflies, grasshoppers, crickets, flies and caddisflies, including leeches, molluscs and occasionally fish, amphibians, lizards, small snakes and nestling birds.

9. Pelican – Pelicans are a genus of large water birds of the family Pelecanidae. They have a long beak and a large throat pouch. They drain water from the contents before swallowing the fish. Pelicans have mainly light-coloured plumage. The bills, pouches and bare facial skin of all species become brighter before breeding season commences. Pelicans are found on all continents except Antarctica. They primarily inhabit warm regions. Pelicans swim well with their strong legs and their webbed feet. They rub the backs of their heads on their preen glands to pick up an oily secretion, which they transfer to their plumage to waterproof it. The diet of pelicans usually consists of fish, but occasionally amphibians, turtles, crustaceans, insects, birds and mammals are also eaten.

10. Painted Stork - Painted Stork is a large wader in the stork family. It is found in the wetlands of the plains of tropical Asia south of the Himalayas in the Indian Subcontinent and extending into Southeast Asia. Their distinctive pink tertial feathers of the adults give them their name. They forage in flocks in shallow waters along rivers or lakes. They immerse their half open beaks in water and sweep them from side to side and snap up their prey of small fish that are sensed by touch. As they wade along they also stir the water with their feet to flush hiding fish. They nest colonially in trees, often along with other waterbirds.

11. Crane – Crane is a type of tall wading birds from the family Gruidae. Cranes have long neck and straight beak. Cranes vary in size between 8.8 to 26.5 pounds in weight and between 3 and 7 feet in length. These birds can be found on all continents except on the Antarctica and the South America. Crane prefers life in marshes and plains. Cranes eat whatever they can find in their habitat. Amphibians, fish, insects and small rodents, along with seed, berries and different plants. Cranes are social birds that live in large groups called flocks. Cranes that live in Europe and Asia are able to reach the height of 32 800 feet while flying. That is the record in the world of birds. Average lifespan of the crane in the wild is between 20 and 30 years.

12. Bronze Winged Jacana - Bronze-winged jacana is a wader in the family Jacanidae. It is the only member of the genus Metopidius. It has huge feet and claws which enables it to walk on floating vegetation in shallow lakes that are its preferred habitat. It is found in south and east Asia within the tropical zone. They are 29 cm (11 in) long, but the females are larger than the males. They are mainly black, although the inner wings are very dark brown and the tail is red. There is a striking white eyestripe. The yellow bill extends up as a red coot-like frontal shield and the legs and very long toes are grey.

13. Tern – Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae. They are normally found near the sea, rivers, or wetlands. They are slender, lightly built birds with long, forked tails, narrow wings, long bills, and short legs. Most species are pale grey above and white below, with a contrasting black cap to the head, but some have dark plumage for part of the year. Terns have a worldwide distribution, breeding on all continents including Antarctica. The terns are birds of open habitats that typically breed in noisy colonies and lay their eggs on bare ground with little or no nest material. Terns are long-lived birds and are relatively free from natural predators and parasites; most species are declining in numbers due directly or indirectly to human activities.

14. Goose - Goose is domesticated type of waterfowl. There are dozens of types of domestic geese today. Goose has orange bill, long neck, short legs and wide rear end. Goose cannot fly, but it can lift the body few feet above the ground when startled. Goose likes to swim and spend plenty of time in the water. Goose is an omnivore. Its diet is based on worms, corn, wheat, sunflower seed, weed, leaves and grass. It needs to drink lots of water during the meal to prevent choking. Goose is social bird that likes to be part of a group. It lives in harmony with other geese and ducks in the captivity. Goose has an average lifespan of 20 to 25 years.

15. Egret – Egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. Egret is a large heron with all-white plumage. Standing up to 1 m (3.3 ft) tall, this species can measure 80 to 104 cm (31 to 41 in) in length and have a wingspan of 131 to 170 cm (52 to 67 in). Egret feeds in shallow water or drier habitats, feeding mainly on fish, frogs, small mammals and occasionally small reptiles and insects, spearing them with its long, sharp bill most of the time by standing still and allowing the prey to come within its striking distance of its bill which it uses as a spear.

16. Eurasian Spoonbill - Eurasian spoonbill or common spoonbill is a wading bird of the ibis and spoonbill family Threskiornithidae. Eurasian spoonbills show a preference for extensive shallow, wetlands with muddy, clay or fine sandy beds. They may inhabit any type of marsh, river, lake, flooded area and mangrove swamp, whether fresh, brackish or saline, but especially those with islands for nesting or dense emergent vegetation and scattered trees or shrubs. The diet consists of aquatic insects, mollusks, newts, crustaceans, worms, leeches, frogs, tadpoles and small fish up to 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in) long.

17. Great Cormorant - Great cormorant, is a member of the cormorant family of seabirds. The great cormorant is a large black bird. Males are typically larger and heavier than females. This is a very common and widespread bird species. It feeds on the sea, in estuaries and on freshwater lakes and rivers. Northern birds migrate south and winter along any coast that is well-supplied with fish. Great cormorant feeds on fish caught through diving. This bird feeds primarily on wrasses, but it also takes sand smelt and common soles. Many fishermen see in the great cormorant a competitor for fish. Because of this, it was hunted nearly to extinction in the past. Thanks to conservation efforts, its numbers increased.

18. Grey Heron - Grey heron is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa. A bird of wetland areas, it can be seen around lakes, rivers, ponds, marshes and on the sea coast. It feeds mostly on aquatic creatures which it catches after standing stationary beside or in the water or stalking its prey through the shallows. Grey heron is a large bird, standing up to 100 cm (39 in) tall and measuring 84–102 cm (33–40 in) long with a 155–195 cm (61–77 in) wingspan. The body weight can range from 1.02–2.08 kg. The plumage is largely ashy-grey above, and greyish-white below with some black on the flanks. Adults have the head and neck white with a broad black supercilium that terminates in the slender, dangling crest, and bluish-black streaks on the front of the neck.

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Chart 747 - National Symbols of India

National Symbols of India Chart
National Symbols of India Chart

Spectrum Chart - 747 : National Symbols of India

1. Indian National Animals : Royal Bengal Tiger - The lord of jungles, tiger is India’s national animal. This animal is symbolic of the country’s rich wildlife as national animal of the country. As this animal symbolizes the unmatched mix of strength, elegance, dexterity and extremely energetic attitude it is known in the world for being a prominent animal which is considered a graceful animal. According to estimations India remains home to approximately half of all tigers found in the world.

2. Indian National Emblem - The National Emblem of India has been taken from the Sarnath Lion capital erected by Ashoka. The national emblem of India was adapted by the Government of India on 26th January 1950. The National emblem of India is the official seal of the President of India and Central and State Governments. The National emblem is used only for official purposes and commands highest respect and loyalty. It is also a symbol of independent India's identity and sovereignty.

3. National Flag : Tiranga - Flag of The Republic of India has three colours, which are placed horizontally. At the top is saffron, which signifies sacrifice and patriotism. In the middle is white, which stands for peach & truth. At the bottom is green, which stands for life and prosperity. In the middle of the white is a blue wheel, which is called the Ashoka Chakra. It has 24 spokes and it stands for progress. The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya.

4. Indian National Currency : Rupee - Indian rupee (₹), is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The rupee is named after the silver coin, rupiya, first issued by Sultan Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century and later continued by the Mughal Empire.

5. Indian National Bird : Peacock - National bird of India peacock is symbolic of incessant beauty, gracefulness, love and thorough joy. As this bird is part of the Indian culture and receives esteem from various such cultural amalgamation it is well protected by the followers of different religions so do the parliamentary statute advocates for its protection. Peacocks of Indian origin are highly colourful whose size is like a swan bird and having fan-like crest built from feathers covering head. Long slim neck and white patched eye turn it extremely beautiful bird. Colour of male peacocks are more impressive then the female peacocks.

6. Indian National Fruit : Mango - Mango is the national fruit of India. In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May. It is cultivated in each and every corner of India except in the hilly areas where it doesn’t get favorable condition for cultivation. As a rich source of different types of Vitamins from A, C and D this fruit is cultivated in India where its multiple varieties are found. Usually mangoes vary in terms of color, shape & size and taste.

7. Indian National Tree : Banyan - India’s national tree, the Banyan Tree is relevant in several aspects like it being enormous sized to its symbolizing worthiness. This tree can be seen in any nook and corner in country’s rural areas. It should be noted well that huge size of this tree turns it most beneficial for numerous creatures which use it their homes. India’s villagers and many such communities have been using banyan tree as central point since centuries. In Hinduism, the leaf of the banyan tree is said to be the resting place for the god Krishna.

8. Indian National Flower : Lotus - Lotus is the National flower of India. The Lotus symbolizes spirituality, fruitfulness, wealth, knowledge and illumination. Lotus even after growing in murky water it is untouched by its impurity. The lotus symbolizes purity of heart and mind. The National Flower 'Lotus' or water lily is an aquatic plant of Nymphaea species with broad floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers that grow only in shallow waters.

9. Indian National Reptile : King Cobra - King Cobra is the longest venomous snake in the world. An adult king cobra can grow up to 18 feet (5.5 m), though most are less than 12 feet. The king cobra lives thoughout India and in some parts of the south and the east of Asia. It is known around the world for its dangerous venom. It mostly avoids humans. The king cobra lives up to 20 years.

10. Indian National Heritage Animal : Elephant - Indian Government took an initiative to declare elephants as national heritage animal with this aim to give them better protection through implying different measures. Native of the mainland Asia, Indian elephants are one of the Asian elephant subspecies that are commonly of three types. Asian elephants are different from African elephants. They are smaller, have smaller ears, a more rounded back, and a fourth toenail on each of their back feet. They have thick, dry skin with a small amount of stiff hair, and are grey to brown in colour. Elephants eat grass, hay, twigs, bark and fruits. It can live up to 60 to 80 years. It can weigh up to 5000kg and be up to 300cm tall.

11. Father of the Nation : Mahatma Gandhi - Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a leader of nationalism in British-ruled India. He is more commonly called Mahatma Gandhi. Rabindranath Tagore gave him the title of 'Mahatma'. Gandhi's principle of satyagraha, often translated as "way of truth" or "pursuit of truth", has inspired other democratic and anti-racist activists like Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson Mandela. Gandhi often said that his values were simple, based upon traditional Hindu beliefs: truth (satya) and non-violence (ahimsa).

12. Indian National Aquatic Animal : Ganges River Dolphin - Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the Government of India as its National Aquatic Animal. Ganges dolphin is found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in Republic of India, Nepal and Bangladesh. It is said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga River as it can only survive in pure and fresh water. It is also called Ganga Susu or Shushuk.

13. Indian Wonder of the World : Taj Mahal - Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. Taj Mahal was built in the 17th century by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. She was his third wife. Eventually, Shah Jahan was entombed in the Taj Mahal with his wife. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, together with the Agra Fort, 2.5 kilometers away. It was listed as one of the 7 Wonders of the World in 2007.

14. Indian National River : Ganga - India has largest ever river in the form of the Ganga or Ganges river which crosses the plains, valleys and mountains while flowing to fulfill more than 2,510 kilometer distance. Hindus consider the Ganges River most sacred on the earth and respects accordingly. Prominent Indian cities Varansi, Haridwar & Allahabad are located on the banks of the Ganges River where many religious activities and ceremonies are organized on the regular intervals.

15. Indian National Calendar : Saka Calendar - Saka calendar, is the official civil calendar in use in India along with the Vikram Samvat calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India. Older Hindu lunisolar calendars are the sources for month names of this calendar as these names are derived from that. One finds spelling variations so are the chances of too much confusion about calendar dates. It was in 1957 that the calendar Reforms Committee recommended for the adoption of current Indian national calendar as Saka Calendar. The implementation was from March 22, 1957 from the Gregorian calendar which falls at Chaitra 1, 1879 of Saka Era as per the Saka Samvat tradition.

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Chart 739 - Saints of Maharashtra

Saints of Maharashtra Chart
Saints of Maharashtra Chart

Spectrum Chart - 738 : Saints of Maharashtra

1. Sant Dnyaneshwar – Sant Dnyaneshwar was a 13th-century Marathi saint, poet, philosopher and yogi of the Nath tradition whose Dnyaneshvari & Amrutanubhav are considered to be milestones in Marathi literature.

2. Sant Tukaram – Sant Tukaram was a 17th-century poet-saint of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. Tukaram is known for his Abhanga devotional poetry and spiritual songs known as kirtans. His poetry was devoted to Vitthala or Vithoba, an avatar of Hindu god Vishnu.

3. Sant Namdev – Sant Namdev was a poet-saint from Maharashtra, who is significant to the Varkari sect of Hinduism. He is also venerated in Sikhism, as well as Hindu warrior-ascetic traditions such as the Dadupanthis and the Niranjani Sampraday.

4. Sant Pundalik – Sant Pundalik is a central figure in the legends of the Hindu God Vithoba, generally considered a Vaishnava deity identified with the deities Vishnu and Krishna. He is credited to have brought Vithoba to Pandharpur, where Vithoba's central shrine stands today. Sant Pundalik is also perceived to be the historical founder of the Varkari sect.

5. Samarth Ramdas – Samarth Ramdas was a noted 17th-century saint and spiritual poet of Maharashtra. He is most remembered for his Advaita Vendatist text, the Dasbodh. Ramdas was a devotee of Hanuman and Rama.

6. Sant Narhri Sonar - Narahari Sonar is a 13th-century Hindu poet-saint of the Varkari sect and goldsmith from Maharashtra. His hagiography speaks about his transition from a staunch Shaiva (devotee of the god Shiva) to a Vithoba-worshipping Varkari after a miracle that makes him realize that Vithoba and Shiva are one and the same. Narahari Sonar composed Marathi devotional poetry called abhanga.

7. Sant Chokhamela – Chokhamela was a saint in Maharashtra in the 14th century. He belonged to the Mahar caste considered "untouchable" in India in that era. He wrote many Abhangas. He was one of the first Dalit poets in India.

8. Sant Mukta Bai – Muktabai was a saint in the Varkari tradition. She was born in a Deshastha Brahmin family and was the younger sister of Dnyaneshwar, the first Varkari saint. Muktabai wrote forty-one abhangs throughout her life span.

9. Sant Damaji Pant – Sant Damaji Pant was a 15th-century Marathi saint or bhakta venerated by the Varkari sect of Hinduism. He was the Kamavisdar of Mangalvedha under the Bahamani king of Bidar. He is described as a devotee of the god Vithoba - the patron deity of the Varkari sect. He distributed grain from the royal granaries to the people in famine. The famine of 1460 is known as Damaji Pant's famine in the Deccan region in honour of Damaji's generosity in the famine.

10. Sant Janabai – Sant Janabai was a Marathi religious poet. Janabai worked as a maidservant in the household of Damasheti, who lived in Pandharpur and who was the father of the prominent Marathi religious poet Namdev. Janabai composed over 340 devotional songs, abhangas, they survived by being included in collections of Namdev's own works.

11. Savata Mali - Savata Mali (born in the 13th century) was a Hindu saint. He was a contemporary of Namdev, and a devotee of Vithoba.

12. Sant Eknath - Sant Eknath was a prominent Marathi sant, scholar, and religious poet of the Varkari sampradaya. In the development of Marathi literature, Ekanath is seen as a bridge between his predecessors—Dnyaneshwar and Namdev—and the later Tukaram and Ramdas.

13. Sant Gora Kumbhar – Sant Gora Kumbhar was a Hindu sant associated with the Bhakti movement and the Varkari sect of Maharashtra. He was a potter by trade and devotee of Vithal.

14. Sant Sopan – Sant Sopan was a sant of the Varkari and also the younger brother of Dnyaneshwar. He wrote a book, the Sopandevi based on the Marathi translation of the Bhagavad Gita along with 50 or so abhangs. Sant Sopan, attained samadhi at Saswad near Pune.

15. Gajanan Maharaj - Gajanan Maharaj from Shegaon, Maharashtra was a Saint from India. He is considered as incarnation of God Shiv. He took Samadhi on 8 September 1910 and the date is marked as Samadhi-din by his disciples.

16. Swami Samarth - Swami Samarth of Akkalkot, was an Indian Guru of the Dattatreya tradition, widely respected in Indian state of Maharashtra. Sri Swami Samarth traveled all over the country and eventually set his abode at Akkalkot village in Maharashtra. The Mantra of Sri Swami Samarth is “Om Abhayadata Shree Swamisamarthaya Namaha” while his biography is the “Sri Guruleelamrut”, authored by Sant Vamanbhau Maharaj.

17. Sant Gadge Maharaj - Sant Gadge Maharaj was a saint and a social reformer. Widely regarded as one of the greatest social reformers of Maharashtra, he has done many reforms for the development of villages and his vision still inspire many charity organizations, rulers and politicians across the country. He conducted his discourses in the form of "Kirtans" in which he would emphasize values like service to humanity and compassion. During his Kirtans, he would educate people against blind faiths and rituals.

18. Sant Tukdoji Maharaj - Tukadoji Maharaj was a spiritual person from Maharashtra. Tukdoji Maharaj was involved in social reforms in the rural regions of Maharashtra. He wrote Gramgeeta which describes means for village development. Many of the development programs started by him have continued to work efficiently after his death.

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